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Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC) / Cement Concrete Pavement



Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC) /Cement Concrete Pavement 

PQC is a top most layer in rigid pavement. PQC roads are more durable than  bituminous roads I. e. The life of rigid pavements is more than Flexible pavements.in this article you will learn about PQC material and its quantity, Dowel and tie bars specifications and it's tolerances limits, joint formation and its filling process  and measurement.

Scope

The work shall consist of construction of un-reinforced, dowel jointed,plain cement concrete pavement in accordance with the requirements of these Specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades and cross sections shown on the drawings.



The design parameters, viz., thickness of pavement slab, grade of concrete, jointdetails etc. shall be as stipulated in the drawings.

To get more details about Flexible pavement (Bituminous concrete),  kindly click on below link 🔗 

https://www.gyanofcivilengineering.com/2020/05/bituminous-concrete-bc-specifications.html


Material

A- source of Material  

The Contractor shall indicate to the Engineer the source of all materials to be used in the concrete work with relevant test data sufficiently in advance, and the approval of the Engineer for the same shall be obtained at least 45 days before the scheduled commencement of the work in trial length. If the Contractor subsequently proposes to obtain materials from a different source during the execution of main work, he shall notify the Engineer, with relevant test data, for his approval, at least 45 days before such materials are to be used.

B- Cement 
Any of the following types of cement capable of achieving the design strength may be used with prior approval of the Engineer, but preference shall be to use at least the 43 grade or higher.


If the soil around concrete pavement has soluble salts like sulphates in excess of 0.5 percent, the cement used shall be sulphate resistant and shall conform to IS:12330.
Cement to be used may preferably be obtained in bulk form.

The cement shall be subjected to acceptance test.
Fly-ash upto 20 percent by weight of cementitious material may be used in Ordinary Portland Cement 43 and 53 Grade as part replacement of cement provided uniform blending with cement is ensured.
The fly ash shall conform to IS:3812 (Part I). Site mixing of fly ash shall be permitted only after ensuring availability of the equipments at site for uniform blending through a specific mechanised facility with automated process control like batch mix plants conforming to IS:4925 and I5:4926. Site mixing will not be allowed otherwise.

The Portland Pozzolana Cement produced in factory as per lS:1489-Part I shall not have fly-ash content more than 20 percent by weight of cementitious material.

C- Chemical Admixture 
Admixtures conforming to IS:9103 and IS:6925 shall be permitted to improve workability of the concrete and/or extension of setting time, on satisfactory evidence that they will not have any adverse effect on the properties of concrete with respect to strength, volume change, durability and have no deleterious effect on steel bars.


If air entraining admixture is used, the total quantity of air shall be 5±1.5 percent for 31.5 mm maximum nominal size aggregate (in air-entrained concrete as a percentage of the volume of the mix).

D- silica fumes
Silica fume conforming to a standard approved by the Engineer may be used as an admixture in the proportion of 3 to 10 percent of cement. Silica fume shall comply with the requirements given in IS:15388-2003, IS:456-2000, IRC:SP:76 and RC:44-2008.


E- Fibres
Fibres may be used subject to the provision in the design/approval by the Engineer to reduce the shrinkage cracking and post-cracking. The fibres may be steel fibre as per IRC:SP:46 or polymeric Synthetic fibres within the following range of specifications:


When fibres are used, the mix shall be so designed that the slump of concrete at paving site is 25±15 mm.

F- Aggregates

Aggregates for pavement concrete shall be natural material complying with IS:383 but with a Los Angeles Abrasion Test value not exceeding 35 percent.


The aggregates shall be free from chert, flint, chalcedony or other silica in a form that can react with the alkalies in the cement. In addition, the total chlorides content expressed as chloride ion content shall not exceed 0.06 percent by weight and the total sulphate content expressed as sulphuric anhydride (SO3) shall not exceed 0.25 percent by weight. In case the Engineer considers that the aggregates are not free from dirt, the same may be washed and drained for atleast 72 hours before batching, as directed by the Engineer.

1- Coarse aggregate
Coarse aggregates shall consist of clean, hard, strong, dense, non-porous and durable pieces of crushed stone or crushed gravel and shall be devoid of pieces of disintegrated stone, soft, flaky, elongated, very angular or splintery pieces. The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 31.5 mm for pavement concrete. No aggregate which has water absorption more than 2 percent shall be used in the concrete mix. The aggregates shall be tested for soundness in accordance with IS:2386 (Part-5). After 5 cycles of testing, the loss shall not be more than 12 percent if sodium sulphate solution is used or 18 percent if magnesium sulphate solution is used. The Los Angeles Abrasion value shall not exceed 35. The combined flakiness and elongation index of aggregate shall not be more than 35 percent.

2 - Fine aggregate 

The fine aggregates shall consist of clean natural sand or crushed stone sand or a combination of the two and shall conform to IS:383. Fine aggregate shall be free from soft particles, clay, shale, loam, cemented particles, mica and organic and other foreign matter. The fine aggregates shall have a sand equivalent value of not less than 50 when tested in accordance with the requirement of IS:2720 (Part 37).

3- Combined gradation of fine and coarse aggregates



G- Water 

Water used for mixing and curing of concrete shall be clean and free fro[m injurious amount of oil, salt, acid, vegetable matter or other substances harmful to the finished concrete.
Water used for mixing and curing shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, sugar, organic materials or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or steel. Potable water is generally considered satisfactory for mixing concrete.
The pH value of water shall be not less than 6.

 Mixing or curing of concrete with sea water is not recommended because of presence of harmfull salts in sea water. Under unavoidable circumstances sea water may be used for mixing or curing in plain concrete with no embedded steel after having given due consideration to possible disadvantages and precautions including use of appropriate cement system.

H- Steel for Dowels and Tie Bars

Steel shall conform to the requirements of IS:432 and IS:1786 as relevant. The dowel bars shall conform to IS:432 of Grade I. Tie bars shall be either High yield Strength Deformed(HYSD) bars conforming to IS:1786 and grade of Fe 500 or plain bars conforming to IS:432 of Grade I. The steel shall be coated with epoxy paint for protection against corrosion.


I- Joint Filler board 

Synthetic Joint filler  for expansion joints shall be used only at abutting structures like bridges and shall be of 20-25 mm thickness within a tolerance of ± 1.5 mm and of a firm compressible material and complying with the requirements of IS:1838, with a compressibility more than 25 percent. it shall be 25 mm less in depth than the thickness of the slab within a tolerance of ± 3 mm and provided to the full width between the side forms. It shall be in suitable lengths which shall not be less than one lane width. If two pieces are joined to make up full width, the joint shall be taped such that no slurry escapes through the joint. Holes to accommodate dowel bars shall be accurately bored or punched out to give a sliding fit on the dowel bars.



 J- Joint Sealing Compound

The joint sealing compound shall be of hot poured, elastomeric type or cold polysulphide/ polyurethene/silicone type having flexibility, resistance to age hardening and durability as per IRC:57. Manufacturer's certificate shall be produced by the Contractor for establishing that the sealant is not more than six months old and stating that the sealant complies with the relevant standard mentioned below. The samples shall meet the requirements as mentioned in IRC:57.
If sealant is of hot poured type, it shall conform toHot applied sealant : IS:1834 or ASTM : 3406-95, as applicable
Cold poured sealants shall be one of the following :
i) polysulphide IS:11433 (Part I), 85:5212 (Part II)
ii) polyurethene BS:5212 iii) silicone ASTM 5893-04

K- Preformed Seals

The pre-formed joint sealing material shall be a vulcanized elastomeric compound using polychioroprene (Neoprene) as the base polymer.
The joint seal shall conform to requirements of ASTM D 2628

Proportioning of Concrete

A- After approval by the Engineer of all the materials to be used in the concrete, the Contractor shall submit the mix design based on weighed proportions of all ingredients for the approval of the Engineer. The mix design shall be submitted at least 30 days prior to the paving of trial length and the design shall be based on laboratory trial mixes using the approved materials and methods as per IRC:44 or IS:10262.The mix design shall be based on the flexural strength of concrete.

B- Cement Content

When Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is used the quantity of cement shall not be less than 360 kg/cu.m. In case fly ash grade I (as per IS:3812) is blended at site as part replacement of cement, the quantity of fly ash shall be upto 20 percent by weight of cementitious material and the quantity of OPC in such a blend shall not be less than 310 kg/cu.m. The minimum of OPC content, in case ground granulated blast furnace slag cement blended, shall also not be less than 310 kg/cu.m. If this minimum cement content is not sufficient to produce concrete of the specified strength, it shall be increased as necessary by the contractor at his own cost.

To calculate the volume of one cement bag, kindly visit on below link  🔗 

https://www.gyanofcivilengineering.com/2019/02/detailed-calculation-to-calculate.html

C- Concrete Strength

The characteristic flexural strength of concrete shall not be less than 4.5 MPa unless specified otherwise. Target mean flexural strength for mix design shall be more than 4.5 MPa 1.65s, where s is standard deviation of flexural strength derived by conducting test on minimum 30 beams. While designing the mix in the laboratory, correlation between flexural and compressive strengths of concrete shall be established on the basis of at least thirty tests on specimens. However, quality control in the field shall be exercised on the basis of flexural strength.
The water content shall be the minimum required to provide the agreed workability for full compaction of the concrete to the required density as determined by the trial mixes or as approved by the Engineer and the maximum free water cement ratio shall be 0.45 when only OPC is used and 0.50 when blended cement (Portland Pozzolana Cement or Portland Slag Cement or OPC blended with fly ash or Ground Granulated Blast Furnance Slag, at site) is used.

D- Workability 

The workability of the concrete at the point of placing shall be adequate for the concrete to be fully compacted and finished without undue flow. The optimum workability for the mix to suit the paving plant being used shall be determined by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. The control of workability in the field shall be exercised by the slump test as per IS:1199.
The workability shall be established for the type of paving equipment available. A slump value in the range of 25 ± 15 mm is reasonable for paving works but this may be modified depending upon the site requirement and got approved by the Engineer.

E- Design Mix

The Contractor shall carry out laboratory trials of design mix with the materials from the approved sources to be used as per IRC:44. Trial mixes shall be made in presence of the Engineer or his representative and the design mix shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

The proportions determined as a result of the laboratory trial mixes may be adjusted, if necessary, during the construction of the trial length.

Any change in the source of materials or mix proportions proposed by the Contractor during the course of work shall be assessed by making laboratory trial mixes and the construction of a further trial length of length not less than 50 m unless approval is given bythe Engineer for minor adjustments like compensation for moisture content in aggregates °minor fluctuations in the grading of aggregate.

Sub-base 

The cement concrete pavement shall be laid over the sub-base constructed in accordance with the relevant drawings and Specifications. It shall be ensured that the sub-base is not damaged before laying the concrete pavement. If the dry lean concrete sub-base is found damaged at some places or it has cracks wider than 10 mm, it shall be repaired with fine cement concrete (aggregate size 10 mm and down) or bituminous concrete before laying separation membrane layer.

To get more details about sub - base [Dry lean concrete (DLC)] , kindly click on below link 🔗 

https://www.gyanofcivilengineering.com/2020/05/dry-lean-concrete-dlc-specifications.html

Separation Membrane

 A separation membrane shall be used between the concrete slab and the sub-base. Separation membrane shall be impermeable PVC sheet 125 micron thick transparent or white in colour laid flat with minimum creases.

Before placing the separation membrane, the sub-base shall be swept clean of all the extraneous materials using air compressor. Wherever overlap of plastic sheets is necessary, the same shall be at least 300 mm and any damaged sheathing shall be replaced at the Contractor's cost. The separation membrane may be nailed to the lower layer with concrete nails. The separation membrane shall be omitted when two layers of wax-based curing compound is used.

Joints




A- The locations and type of joints shall be as shown in the drawing. Joints shall be constructed depending upon their functional requirement. The location of the joints should be transferred accurately at the site and mechanical saw cutting of joints done as per stipulated dimensions. It shall be ensured that the required depth of cut is made from edge-to-edge of the pavement. Transverse and longitudinal joints in the pavement and Dry Lean Concrete sub-base shall be staggered so that they are not coincident vertically and are at least 800 to 1000 mm and 300 to 400 mm apart respectively. Sawing of joints shall be carried out with diamond studded blades soon after the concrete has hardened to take the load of the sawing machine and crew members without damaging the texture of the pavement.

Sawing operation could start as early as 4-8 hours after laying of concrete pavement but not later than 8 to 12 hours depending upon the ambient temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity and required maturity of concrete achieved for this purpose.

When the kerb is cast integrally with the main pavement slab, the joint cutting shall also be extended to the kerb.

Where the use of maturity meter is specified, sawing should not be initiated when the compressive strength of the concrete is less than 2 MPa and should be completed before it attains the compressive strength of 7 MPa.

B-Transverse Joints

Transverse joints shall be contraction, construction and expansion joints
constructed at the spacing described in the drawings. Transverse joints shall be straight within the following tolerances along the intended line of joints.

i) Deviations of the performed filler board (IS:1838) in the case of expansion joints from the intended line of the joint shall not be greater than ±10 mm.
ii) The best fit straight line through the joint grooves as constructed shall be not more than 25 mm from the intended line of the joint.
iii) Deviations of the joint groove from the best fit straight line of the joint shall not be greater than 10 mm.
iv) Transverse joints on each side of the longitudinal joint shall be in line with each other and of the same type and width. Transverse joints
shall have a sealing groove which shall be sealed.

C- Contraction Joints 

 The contraction joints shall be placed transversely at pre-specified locations as per drawings/design using dowel bars. These joints shall be cut as soon as the concrete has undergone initial hardening and is hard enough to take the load of joint sawing machine without causing damage to the slab.
Contraction joints shall consist of a mechanical sawn joint groove, 3 to 5 mm wide and one-fourth to one-third depth of the slab ± 5 mm or as stipulated in the drawings and dowel bars as stipulated in the drawings.
Contraction joint shall be widened subsequently to accommodate the sealant, to dimensions shown on drawings or as per IRC:57.


D- Expansion Joints 

The expansion joint shall consist of a joint filler board  and dowel bars and as detailed in the drawings. The filler board shall be positioned vertically with the prefabricated joint assemblies along the line of the joint within the tolerances given in section (transverse joints section discussed above). The adjacent slabs shall be completely
separated from each other by the joint filler board.


E- Transverse Construction Joint 

Transverse construction joint shall be placed whenever concreting is completed after a day's work or is suspended for more than 30 minutes. These joints shall be provided at location of contraction joints using dowel bars.
 If sufficient concrete has not been mixed to form a slab extending upto a contraction joint, and if an interruption occurs, the concrete placed shall be removed upto the last preceding joint and disposed of. At all construction joints, steel bulk heads shall be used to retain the concrete. The surface of the concrete laid subsequently shall conform to the grade and cross sections of the previously laid pavement. When positioning of bulk head/stop-end is not possible, concreting to an additional 1 or 2 m length may be carried out to enable the movement of joint cutting machine so that joint grooves may be cut and the extra 1 or 2 m length is cut out and removed subsequently after concrete has hardened.

After minimum 14 days of curing, in case OPC cement is used and 16 days of curing when flyash or blended cement is used, the construction joint shall be widened to accommodate the sealant to dimensions shown on drawing or as per IRC:57.

F- Longitudinal Joint 

 1- The longitudinal joints shall be constructed by forming or by sawing as per
details of the joints shown in the drawing. Sawed longitudinal joints shall be constructed when the concrete pavement placement width exceeds 4.5 m. The groove may be cut after the final set of the concrete. Joints should be sawn to at least one-third the depth of the slab ±5 mm as indicated in the drawing. The joint shall be widened subsequently to dimensions shown on the drawings.

Where adjacent lanes of pavement are constructed separately using slip form pavers or side forms, the tie bars may be bent at right angles against the vertical face/ side of the first lane constructed and straightened before placing concrete in the adjacent lane. Broken or damaged tie bars shall be repaired or replaced as required.
The groove for sealant shall be cut in the pavement lane placed later.
2- Tie bars
Tie bars shall be provided at the longitudinal joints as per dimensions and spacing shown in the drawing and in accordance with section (check full details of Tie bar section given below) . The direction of the tie bars at curves shall be radial in the direction of the radius.

G- Dowel Bars

 Dowel bars shall be mild steel rounds with details/dimensions as indicated in the drawings and free from oil, dirt, loose rust or scale.

They shall be straight, free of irregularities and burring restricting slippage in the concrete.
The sliding ends shall be sawn or cropped cleanly with no protrusions outside the normal diameter of the bar. Any protrusions shall be removed by grinding the ends of the dowel bars.
The dowel bar shall be supported on cradles/dowel chairs in pre-fabricated joint assemblies positioned prior to the construction of the slabs or mechanically inserted with vibration into the plastic concrete by a method which ensures correct placement of the bars besides full re-compaction of the concrete around the dowel bars.

Unless shown otherwise on the drawings, dowel bars shall be positioned at
mid depth of the slab within a tolerance of ±20 mm, and centered equally about intended lines of the joint within a tolerance of ±25 mm. They shall be aligned parallel to the finished surface of the slab and to the centre line of the carriageway and to each other within tolerances given here-in-under.
i) For bars supported on cradles prior to the laying of the slab:

a) All bars in a joint shall be within ±2 mm per 300 mm length of bar
b) 2/3rd of the number of bars shall be within ±3 mm per 500 mm length of bar
c) No bar shall differ in alignment from an adjoining bar by more than 3 mm per 300 mm length of bar in either the horizontal or vertical plane
d) Cradles supporting dowel bar shall not extend across the line of joint i.e. no steel bar of the cradle assembly shall be continuous across the joint.

ii) For all bars inserted after laying of the slab except those inserted by a
Dowel Bar Inserter the tolerance for alignment may be twice as indicated
in (i) above.
The transverse joints at curves shall be radial in the direction of the
radius.
Dowel bars, supported on cradles in assemblies, when subject to a load of
110 N applied at either end and in either the vertical or horizontal direction (upwards and downwards and in both directions horizontally).
Dowel bars in the contraction joints, construction joints and expansion joints shall be covered by a thin plastic sheath. The thickness of the sheath shall not exceed 0.5 mm and shall be tightly fitted on the bar for at least two-thirds of the length from one end for dowel bars in contraction/construction joints and half the length plus 50 mm for expansion joints.

For expansion joints, a closely fitting cap 100 mm long consisting of
waterproofed cardboard or an approved synthetic material like PVC or GI pipe shall be placed over the sheathed end of each dowel bar. An expansion space (about 25 mm) at least equal in length to the thickness of the joint filler board shall be formed between the end of the cap
and the end of the dowel bar by using compressible sponge.

H- Tie Bars

Tie bars in longitudinal joints shall be deformed steel bars of strength
500 MPa complying with IS:1786 and in accordance with the requirements given in this Clause. The bars shall be free from oil, dirt, loose rust and scale.
Tie bars projecting across the longitudinal joint shall be protected from corrosion for 75 mm on each side of the joint by a protective coating of bituminous paint with the approval of the Engineer. The coating shall be dry when the tie bars are used. In the case of coastal region and high rainfall areas, tie bars shall be epoxy coated in their full length as per IS:13620.

Tie bars in longitudinal joints shall be made up into rigid assemblies with adequate supports and fixings to remain firmly in position during the construction of the slab. Alternatively, tie bars at longitudinal joints may be mechanically or manually inserted into the plastic concrete from above by vibration using a method which ensures correct placements of the bars and recompaction of the concrete around the tie bars.
Tie bars shall be positioned to remain in the middle from the top or within the upper middle third of the slab depth as indicated in the drawings and approximately parallel to the surface and approximately perpendicular to the line of the joint, with the centre of each bar on the intended line of the joints within a tolerance of ±50 mm, and with a minimum cover of 30 mm below the joint groove. Spacing of tie bars on curves of radius less than 360 m shall not be less than 350 mm. 
To check the position of the tie bars, one metre length, 0.5 m on either side of the longitudinal joint shall be opened when the concrete is green (within 20 to 30 minutes). The pit shall be refilled with the fresh concrete of same mix after checking.

I- Weather and Seasonal Limitations 

 A-Concreting during Monsoon Months

Concreting should be avoided during rainy season. However, when concrete is being placed during monsoon months and when it may be expected to rain, sufficient supply of tarpaulin or other waterproof cloth shall be provided along the line of the work. Any time when it rains, all freshly laid concrete which had not been covered for curing purposes shall be adequately protected. Any concrete damaged by rain shall be removed and replaced. If the damage is limited to texture, it shall be retextured in accordance with the directions of the Engineer.

B- Temperature Limitation

No concreting shall be done when the temperature of the concrete reaching the paving site is above 30°C. Besides, in adverse conditions like high temperature, low relative humidity, excessive wind velocity, imminence of rains etc., tents on mobile trusses may be provided over the freshly laid concrete for a minimum period of 3 hours as directed by the Engineer. To bring down the temperature, if necessary, chilled water or ice flakes should be.made use of. When the ambient temperature is more than 35°C, no concreting shall be permitted. The ice flakes should not be manufactured from chlorinated water. Generally the rate of evaporation of waer shall not exceed '1 kg/sqm/hour as per IRC:15.
No concreting shall be done when the concrete temperature is below 5°C and the temperature is furher falling.

Types of paving machine 

1- Fixed Form paving
2- Slip form paving

Construction process

It included various steps which are being discussed below.
The paving speed of slip-form paver shall not be less than 1.0 m per minute. The concreting should proceed continuously without stops and starts.

A- Batching and Mixing
Batching and mixing of the concrete shall be done at a central batching and mixing plant with automatic controls, located at a suitable place which takes into account sufficient space for stockpiling of cement, aggregates and stationary water tanks. This shall be located at an approved distance, duly considering the properties of the mix and the transporting arrangements available with the Contractor.
B- Equipment for proportioning of materials and paving 
A- Batching plant and equipment
B- Paving equipment
The concrete shall be placed with an approved fixed form or slip form paver with independent units designed to (i) spread, (ii) consolidate, screed and float-finish, (iii) texture and cure the freshly placed concrete in one complete pass of the machine in such a manner that a minimum of hand finishing will be necessary and so as to provide a dense and homogeneous pavement in conformity with the plans and Specifications. The paver shall be equipped with electronic sensor controls to control the line and grade from either one side or both sides of the machine.
Vibrators shall operate at a frequency of 8000-10000 impulses per minute under load at a maximum spacing of 600 mm. The variable vibration setting shall be provided in the machine.

C- Concrete Saw
The Contractor shall provide adequate number of concrete saws with sufficient number of diamond-edge saw blades. The saw machine shall be either electric or petrol/diesel driven type. A water tank with flexible hose and pump shall be made available for this activity on priority basis.



D- Hauling and Placing of Concrete
 1- Freshly mixed concrete from the central batching and mixing plant shall be transported to the paver site by means of tipping trucks or transit mixers of sufficient capacity.
The feeding to the paver is to be regulated in such a way that the paving is done in an uninterrupted manner with a uniform speed throughout the day's work. Tipping trucks shall be washed at a regular frequency as prescribed by the Engineer to ensure that no left-over mix of previous loading remains stuck.

2- Placing of Concrete

The total time taken from the addition of the water to the mix, until the completion of the surface finishing and texturing shall not exceed 120 minutes when concrete temperature is less than 25°C and 90 minutes when the concrete temperature is between 25°C and 30°C. When the time between mixing and laying exceed these values, the concrete shall be rejected and removed from the site. Tipping trucks delivering concrete shall normally not run 
on plastic sheathing nor shall they run on completed slabs until after 28 days of placing the concrete. 
The placing of concrete in front of the PQC paver should preferably be from the side placer to avoid damage to DLC by concrete tipping trucks. In case of unavoidable situation, truck supplying concrete to the paver may be allowed to ply on the DLC with the approval of the Engineer. The paver shall be capable of paving the carriageway as shown in the drawings, in a single pass and lift.
In areas inaccessible to paving equipment, the pavement shall be constructed
using side forms.
In all cases, the temperature of the concrete shall be measured at the point of discharge from the delivery vehicle.
The addition of water to the surface of the concrete to facilitate the finishing operations will not be permitted except with the approval of the Engineer when it shall be applied as a mist by means of approved equipment.
While the concrete is still plastic, its surface shall be textured by brush or tines as per the instructions of the engineer.
After the surface texturing, but before the curing compound is applied, the concrete slab shall be marked with the chainage at every 100 m interval by embossing.
As soon as the side forms are removed, edges of the slabs shall be corrected wherever irregularities have occurred by using fine concrete composed of 1:1:2, cement : sand : coarse agg (10 mm down) with water cement ratio not more than 0.4 under the supervision of the Engineer.

 Construction is being done by Slip Form Paver/Fixed form paver.

Transition slabs
At the interface of rigid and flexible pavement, at least 3 m long reinforced buried slab shall be provided to give a long lasting joint at the interface. The details shall be as given in IRC:15.

Anchor Beam and Terminal Slab Beam Adjoining Bridge Structures
RCC anchor beams shall be provided in the terminal slab adjoining bridge structures as per drawings and IRC:15.

Surface texture
A- Tining
After final floating and finishing of the slab and before application of the liquid curing menbrane, the surface of concrete slabs shall be textured either in the transverse direction (i.e., at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the road) or in longitudinal direction (i.e., parallel to the centreline of the roadway). The texturing shall be done by tining the finished concrete surface by using rectangular steel tines. A beam or a bridge mounted with steel tines shall be equipped and operated with automatic sensing and control devices from main paver or auxiliary unit. The tining unit shall have facility for adjustment of the download pressure on the tries as necessary to produce the desired finish. The tining rakes shall be cleaned often to remove snots of slurry. The tines shall be inspected daily and all the damaged and bent tines shall be replaced before commencing texturing. Tined grooves shall be 3 mm wide and 3 to 4 mm deep. Before commencing texturing, the bleeding water, if any, shall be removed and texturing shall be done on a firm surface.

1- Transverse tining
When the texturing is specified in transverse direction, a beam of at least 3 m length mounted with tines shall be moved in transverse direction to produce the texture. The grooves produced shall be at random spacing of grooves but uniform in width and depth. The spacing shall conform to a pattern shown below:

Random spacing in mm


The above pattern shall be repeated. Texturing shall be done at the right time such that the grooves after forming shall not close and they shall not get roughened.

2- Longitudinal tining
Longitudinal tining shall be done, if specified in the Contract. The texturing bridge shall be wide enough to cover the entire width of the carriageway but within 75 mm from the pavement edge. The centre to centre spacing between the tines shall be 18 to 21 mm. The width of tine texture shall be 3 mm and depth shall be 3 to 4 mm.

B- Brush Texturing
Brush Texturing Alternatively on the instructions of the Engineer, the brush texturing shall be applied. The brushed surface texture shall be applied evenly across the slab in one direction by the use of a wire brush not less than 450 mm wide but wider brushes normally of 3 m length are preferred.

This test shall be performed at least once for each day's paving and wherever the Engineer considers it necessary at times after construction as under:
Five individual measurements of the texture depth shall be taken at least 2 m apart anywhere along a diagonal line across a lane width between points 50 m apart along the pavement. No measurement shall be taken within 300 mm of the longitudinal edges of a concrete slab constructed in one pass.
Texture depths shall not be less than the minimum required depth when measurements are taken as given in Table below nor greater than an average of 1.25 mm.


Where the texture depth requirements are found to be deficient, the Contractor shall make good the texture across the full lane width over the length directed by the Engineer, by retexturing the hardened concrete surface in an approved manner.

Curing
Immediately after the surface texturing, the surface and sides of the slab shall be cured by the application of approved resin-based aluminized reflective curing compound which hardens into an impervious film or membrane with the help of mechanical sprayer.

Preparation and Sealing of Joint Grooves

 All joints shall be sealed using sealants.
A- Preparation of Joint Grooves for Sealing
Grooves are saw cut in the first instance just to provide minimum width (3-5 rnm) to facilitate development of crack at joint locations, as shown in the drawing.
Subsequently before sealing, grooves are widened by sawing as per the dimensions in the drawing. Dimension of the grooves shall be controlled by depth/width gauge.
If rough arrises develop when grooves are made, they shall be ground to provide a chamfer approximately 5 mm wide. If the groove is at an angle upto 10° from the perpendicular to the surface, the overhanging edge of the groove shall be sawn or ground perpendicular. If spalling occurs or the angle of the former is greater than 10 degree, the joint sealing groove shall be sawn wider and perpendicular to the surface to encompass the defects upto a maximum width, including any chamfer, of 20 mm for transverse joints and 10 mm for longitudinal joints. If the spalling cannot be so eliminated then the arises shall be repaired by an approved thin bonded arrises repair using cementitious/epoxy mortar materials.
All grooves shall be cleaned of any dirt or loose material by air blasting with filtered, oil-free compressed air.
Before sealing the temporary seal provided for blocking the ingress of dirt, soil etc., shall be removed. A highly compressible heat resistant paper-backed debonding strip as per drawing shall be inserted in the groove to serve the purpose of breaking the bond between sealant and the bottom of the groove and to plug the joint groove so that the sealant may not leak through the cracks.In the case of longitudinal joints, heat resistant tapes may be inserted to block the leakage through bottom of the joint where hot poured sealant is used. When cold poured sealant is used a debonding tape of 1.0-2.0 ram thickness and 6 to 8 mm width shall be inserted to plug the groove so that the sealant does not enter in the initially cut groove.

B- Sealing with Sealants

If hot applied sealant is used it shall be heated and applied from a thermostatically controlled, indirectly heated preferably with oil jacketed melter and pourer having recirculating pump and extruder. For large road projects, sealant shall be applied with extruder having flexible hose and nozzle. The sealant shall not be heated to a temperature higher than the safe heating temperature and not for a period longer than the safe heating period, as specified by the manufacturer. The dispenser shall be cleaned out at the end of each day in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and reheated material shall not be used. The Movement Accomodation Factor of the sealant shall be more than 10 percent.

Cold applied sealants with chemical formulation like polysulphidef polyurethene/ silicone as per IRC:57 shall be used These shall be mixed and applied within the time limit specified by the manufacturer. If primers are recommended they shall be applied neat' with an appropriate brush. The Movement Accomodation Factor shall be more than 25 percent.
Se-alant shall be applied, slightly to a lower level than the slab with a tolerance of 3 ± 1 mm. During sealing operation, it shall be seen that no air bubbles are introduced in the sealant either by vapours or by the sealing process. The sealant after pouring, shall be alloved to cure for 7 days or for a period as per instructions of manufacturers.

Thanks a lot
Mukesh Kumar (Gyan of engineering) 

Comments

  1. This post is really awesome. Genuinely i like this blog. It gives me more useful information. I hope you share lots of things with us . Paving companies

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